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cephalins (kephalins):

Compounds derived from glycerol in which a primary and the secondary hydroxy groups are esterified with long-chain fatty acids, and the remaining primary one with the mono(2-aminoethyl) ester of phosphoric acid, or with the monoserine ester of phosphoric acid. The term is not recommended. BNRD Nomenclature of Phosphorus Containing Compounds, Table 4, p. 262. These compounds are preferably designated as (3-phosphatidyl)ethanolamines and (3-phosphatidyl)serines respectively. See also phosphatidic acids.

eicosanoids: See under icosanoids.

fatty acids:*

Aliphatic monocarboxylic acids derived from or contained in esterified form in an animal or vegetable fat, oil or wax. BNRD Rule Lip-1.1 (p. 180). Natural fatty acids commonly have a chain of 4 to 28 carbons (usually unbranched and even-numbered), which may be saturated or unsaturated. By extension, the term is sometimes used to embrace all acyclic aliphatic carboxylic acids.


Esters of glycerol (propane-1,2,3-triol) with fatty acids, widely distributed in nature. They are by long-established custom subdivided into triglycerides, 1,2- or 1,3-diglycerides, and 1- or 2-monoglycerides, according to the number and position of acyl groups (not, as one might suppose, the number of glycerol residues). The recommended method for naming individual glycerides is mono-, di- or tri-O-acylglycerol, as appropriate. BNRD, Rule Lip-1.2(b) (p. 181).

(a triglyceride)


Naturally occurring 1,2-di-O-acylglycerols joined at oxygen 3 by a glycosidic linkage to a carbohydrate part (usually a mono-, di-, or tri-saccharide). Some substances classified as bacterial glycolipids have the sugar part acylated by one or more fatty acids and the glycerol part may be absent. See also glycosides, lipids, lipopolysaccharides. BNRD Rule Lip-3.1 (p. 187). E.g. (R' = H or glycosyl)


Unsaturated C20 fatty acids and skeletally related compounds. Cf. prostanoids, leukotrienes. The spelling icosanoids is preferred over the spelling eicosanoids for consistency with icosanoic acid. NOC Rule A-1.1, footnote. Specialists working in this field commonly use eicosanoids.

kephalins: An alternative spelling of cephalins.


Choline esters of phosphatidic acids. Specific compounds should be named systematically. BNRD Rule Lip-2.4 (p. 184).


Linear C20 endogenous metabolites of arachidonic acid (icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid) containing a terminal carboxy function and four or more double bonds (three or more of which are conjugated) as well as other functional groups. A subclass of icosanoids.


A loosely defined term for substances of biological origin that are soluble in nonpolar solvents. They consist of saponifiable lipids, such as glycerides (fats and oils) and phospholipids, as well as nonsaponifiable lipids, principally steroids. BNRD, Nomenclature of Lipids (p. 180).


Clathrate complexes consisting of a lipid enwrapped in a protein host without covalent binding in such a way that the complex has a hydrophilic outer surface consisting of all the protein and the polar ends of any phospholipids.

phosphatidic acids:*

Derivatives of glycerol in which one hydroxy group, commonly but not necessarily primary, is esterified with phosphoric acid and the other two are esterified with fatty acids. See lecithins, phosphoglycerides, phospholipids. BNRD Rule Lip-2.3 (p. 184).


Phosphoric diesters, esters of phosphatidic acids, generally having a polar head group (OH or NH 2) on the esterified alcohol which typically is 2-aminoethanol, choline, glycerol, inositol , serine. The term includes lecithins, cephalins. E.g. 2-aminoethyl phosphatidates.


Lipids containing phosphoric acid as mono- or di-esters, including phosphatidic acids and phosphoglycerides. BNRD Rule Lip-2.1 (p. 184).


Naturally occurring compounds derived from the parent C20 acid, prostanoic acid. Cf. icosanoids, prostanoids. R. G. Salomon, Acc. Chem. Res. 18, 294-301 (1985). E.g. prostanoic acid


The family of natural prostaglandins and prostaglandin-like compounds. E. J. Corey, T. Ravindranathan and S. Terashima, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93, 4326-4329 (1971).


Hydrogen sulfate esters of glycosphingolipids. Specific compounds should be named as glycerosphingolipid derivatives. BNRD Rule Lip-3.3 and Lip-3.11 (p. 187). E.g.

R = fatty acid acyl group or H, R' = CH3[CH2]14CH(OH)-


Sulfate esters of glycolipids. See also sulfatides.

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