Continued from 2-Carb-22
Names of individual aldaric acids are formed by replacing the ending '-ose' of the systematic or trivial name of the parent aldose by '-aric acid'. Choice between possible names is based on 2-Carb-2.2.2.
not L-gularic acid
not L-glycero-D-gluco-heptaric acid
2-Carb-23.2. meso Forms
To the names of aldaric acids that are symmetrical, which therefore have no D- or L- prefix, the prefix 'meso-' may be added for the sake of clarity. Examples: meso-erythraric acid, meso-ribaric acid, meso-xylaric acid, meso-allaric acid, meso-galactaric acid.
The D or L prefix must however be used when a meso-aldaric acid has become asymmetric as a result of substitution.
not 3-O-methyl-L-galactaric acid
2-Carb-23.3. Trivial names
For the tetraric acids, the trivial name tartaric acid remains in use, with the stereochemistry given using the R,S system. Esters are referred to as 'tartrates' (the second 'a' is elided).
(2S,3S)- or (-)-Tartaric acid
or D-threaric acid
(2R,3S)- or meso-Tartaric acid
or erythraric acid
Note. In the older literature, there is confusion about the use of D and L in the case of tartaric acids. It is therefore recommended to use the R,S system in this case.
Derivatives formed by modifying the carboxy group (salts, esters, lactones, lactams, acyl halides, amides, nitriles etc.) are named by the methods of 2-Carb-20.2. Dilactones, half-esters, amic acids etc. are named by the methods of [13, 14]. In cases of ambiguity, locants should be specified.
6-Methyl hydrogen D-galactarate
13. IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, Sections A, B, C, D, E, F and H, 1979 Edition, Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. Sections E and F are reprinted in ref. 2, pp. 1-18 and 19-26, respectively.
14. Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds, Recommendations 1993, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1993).
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